DISASTROUS CAMPAIGNS 419
however, spared, and the Russian General retired without
effecting anything of importance.
The Capture of Erivan, 1827.—In 1827 General
Paskievich, who had succeeded to the chief command,
again besieged Erivan, but for the third time this fortress
defied the Russians. Shortly afterwards Abbasabad, a
strong position on the Aras near Nakhchivan, was taken
by treachery. This blow disheartened the Persians and
fruitless efforts were made to conclude peace.
A victory, however, was at last gained by Abbas Mirza
in the neighbourhood of Echmiadzin over a Russian force
under General Karkovski, consisting of five thousand
infantry, one thousand cavalry, and twelve guns. The
Persians were equal in infantry, but stronger in cavalry
and artillery. The latter arm was ably served, and the
Persian troops, anxious to regain their lost reputation,
charged boldly. The Russian General was killed, and but
for time lost by the Persians in cutting off the heads of their
enemies the Russian force would have been annihilated.
As it was, a large number reached the friendly shelter of
Echmiadzin. Notwithstanding this victory, Path Ali Shah
refused to continue the supply of money necessary to keep
the army in the field, and the Sirdar, deserted by his
monarch, at last surrendered Erivan to General Paskievich,
who was granted in consequence the title Count of
The Surrender of Tabriz, 1827.—The Shah's avarice
led to a still greater disaster. Learning the defenceless
state of Tabriz, Paskievich despatched a small force of five
thousand men, to which the city was surrendered by the
leading inhabitants without a struggle. By this success
the Russians gained possession of the arsenal, of almost
the entire artillery park, and of the families of the leaders.
There was consequently no use in prolonging the hopeless
struggle and it was left to the Russians to dictate the terms
on which peace would be made.
The Treaty of Turkomanchaiy 1828.—The victors were
embarrassed by hostilities with Turkey, and their demands,
although not light, cannot be called exorbitant. The chief
articles included the cession to Russia of the fertile